terça-feira, 14 de agosto de 2012

Pinceladas de Cosmologia em alguns de seus tons

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Inflaton

Em Cosmologia, o campo associado pelos físicos à energia potencial armazenada cerca de 10^-35 segundos após o Big Bang, resultando na repulsão gravitacional, acelerando a matéria.

A aceleração ocorre após o Big bang devido a um campo inflaton.

Ainda não é plenamente estabelecido o que este campo realmente seja e nem a origem de sua enorme energia potencial inicial.

startswithabang.com



Na Teoria das Cordas, a inflação ocorre antes do Big Bang como resultado das simetrias.


Dilaton

Em Cosmologia, dilaton é o nome dado pelos físicos o campo em Teoria das Cordas que determina a intensidade global de todas as interações, adquirindo diferentes valores em diferentes épocas cosmológicas (eras) ou em regiões remotas do espaço, fazendo variar, inclusive ainda hoje, as constantes físicas fundamentais do universo.

O dilaton pode ser interpretado como o tamanho de uma dimensão extra de espaço, atribuindo o total de 11 dimensões para o espaço-tempo na Teoria das Cordas.

Embora nas equações de Einstein nenhuma simetria entre fatores de escala do universo apareçam, ela surge na Teoria das Cordas, onde o dilaton possui papel central.

Os cenários cosmológicos de "pré-Big Bang"* e ecpirótico compartilham características, sendo que a principal está no comportamento do dilaton.

*Aspas mais que necessárias, e veremos adiante o motivo.

Soo-Jong Rey; Holographic principle and topology change in string theory, 1999 Classical and Quantum Gravity Volume 16 Number 7 L37 doi:10.1088/0264-9381/16/7/102


No cenário "pré-Big Bang", o dilaton começa com um valor baixo, tornando fracas as forças de interação da natureza e aumenta de intensidade continuamente. Neste cenário, envolve-se um campo quântico, o áxion, ao dilaton relacionado.

No ecpirótico, as colisões ocorrem quando as forças são mais fracas.

O campo dilaton está acoplado ao campo eletromagnético, levando em sua flutuação este campo à flutuações de larga escala.



Modelos Cíclicos

Existem duas abordagens principais para os chamados cenários que resultam no "Big Bang": a Gravidade Quântica em Loop - ou Laço, como dizem meus companheiros de Wikipédia lusitanos - e a Teoria das Cordas.

Na abordagem da teoria das cordas surgem por sua vez dois cenários: o chamado "cenário pré-Big Bang" e o "cenário ecpirótico".

hermes.aei.mpg.de



Cenário ecpirótico

Em cosmologia cenário ecpirótico (significando 'conflagração') é o cenário desenvolvido pelo grupo de cosmólogos e Teoria das Cordas que inclui Justin Khoury, da Columbia University, Paul J. Steinhardt da Princeton University, Burt A. Ovrut, da University of Pennsylvania, Nathan Seiberg, do Instituto de Estudos Avançados de Neil Turok, da University of Cambridge, baseando-se que nosso universo é apenas uma de muitas branas flutuando dentro de um espaço com dimensões superiores.[Nota]

Tais branas exercem forças atrativas entre si e ocasionalmente colidem. O Big Bang seria o impacto (ou "toque", como é usual expressar-se neste campo da Física) com a nossa.

Em modelos variantes de tal abordagem, tais colisões ocorrem em ciclos, com branas chocando-se e afastando-se, com expansões e contrações das branas entre os intervalos correspondentes à expansões aceleradas do universo, o que pode ser indício de uma nova colisão.

É um cenário cosmológico concorrente ao chamado cenário "pré-Big Bang" e com ele compartilha características, guardando a principal diferença no comportamento do dilaton.

westernparadigm.wordpress.com - ver esta página para uma animação das branas em seus movimentos e toques.


Uma observação: As branas colidem convertendo sua energia cinética em matéria e radiação.

Nota: Para um entendimento do que sejam branas, ,melhor ainda dizer-se D-branas, recomendamos o artigo rápido da Wiki {pt}  D-brana ou o bem mais completo da Wiki {en} D-brane, que para ser entendido, requer o conhecimento do que sejam condições de contorno de Dirichlet.



Cenário "pré-Big Bang"


Em Cosmologia, cenário pré-Big Bang foi uma tentativa pioneira de aplicar-se a Teoria das Cordas à Cosmologia, de maneira que o Big Bang não é a origem primeira do universo, mas um momento de transição. Neste cenário antes do Big Bng a expansão se acelera, depois desacelera. A trajetória de uma galáxia através do espaço-tempo neste cenário assume a forma de um cálice de vinho.

Neste cenário, o universo sempre existiu, estando no passado praticamente vazio, com forças como a gravitação inerentemente fracas.

Tais forças se intensificam e aglutinama matéria e em determinadas regiões formam um buraco negro o qual se expande à taxas cada vez mais aceleradas, separando a materia interior da matéria exterior.

Neste buraco negro, a matéria "migra" - novamente necessárias aspas - para o centro e aumenta em densidade até atingir o limite imposto pela Teoria das Cordas. Quando a matéria atinge tal densidade, expande-se em um Big Bang. Externamente a tal buraco negro, outros buracos negros se formam, cada um um universo distinto.

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Este modelo começou a ser desenvolvido em 1991 por Gabriele Veneziano, combinando a "dualidade T" com a simetria de inversão temporal.

Na teoria convencional da expansão do universo, a aceleração ocorre depois do Big Bang devido a um campo inflaton.

No cenário pré-Big Bang, a inflação ocorre antes como resultado da simetria das Teoria da Cosdas, produzindo a aceleração (inflação) que permite o universo ser homogêneo e isotrópico.

O universo pré-Big Bang apresenta-se em teoria como uma imagem espelhada do universo pós-Big Bang - o que chamamos de "nosso universo", ou, numa imagem bem humana, antropocêntrica até na nossa medida de tempo, "atual".


  • M. Gasperini, G. Veneziano; The Pre-Big Bang Scenario in String Cosmology, 2002 - PDF

  • M. Gasperini; Phenomenological Aspects of the Pre-Big-Bang Scenario in String Cosmology, 1994. - arxiv.org - PDF

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